A solar microinverter, or simply a microinverter, is a device that is used to build solar power plants. The micro inverter converts direct current (DC) electricity generated by the solar panel into alternating current (AC) electricity.
Unlike common central inverters (or mono-inverters), which operate with a large number of panels connected in series, each micro inverter operates with one, two or four panels. At the same time, the AC outputs of microinverters can be combined with each other to form the necessary output power and connect to the public network.
Micro inverters have a number of advantages over traditional mono inverters.
The main advantage is that the solar panels are electrically isolated from each other. That is, each panel works independently of the others. Such a scheme for constructing a solar power plant makes it possible to avoid a general decrease in the generated electricity of the entire array of solar panels with partial shading, pollution or snow cover of one of the panels of the array. Breakage or degradation of one of the panels also does not affect the operation of the remaining panels. Each micro-inverter collects the optimal amount of electricity from the solar panels connected to it, thereby achieving the maximum PPT (MPPT).
A simple construction scheme, low switching current, convenient system power scaling and additional safety are also advantages of using microinverter technology in building solar power plants.
The simplicity of the circuit lies primarily in the ease of connecting to the network. The microinverter itself is installed between the solar panel and the roof, and an ordinary AC cable is suitable for the house distribution board. With a solar power plant power of up to 3 kW, such a circuit can be connected directly to a power outlet.
It is also easy to increase the capacity of a solar power plant. It is always possible to install an additional micro-inverter with one, two or four solar panels, increasing the total power by 500, 1000 and 1500W respectively.
Microinverter systems do not have the high DC voltage that monoinverter systems do. In a mono-inverter scheme, solar panels are connected in series in groups to achieve high voltage (600-1000V DC), which creates a HAZARD for life and health during installation and operation. In microinverters, the maximum DC voltage, this is the voltage at the outputs of the solar panel – 24V DC, which does not pose a danger to life. Therefore, micro inverters are safe compared to dangerous mono inverters.